**Excel Function**

# DELTA Excel Formula

Microsoft Excel is a software program manufactured and developed by Microsoft Corporation allowing the Excel users to format, calculate and organize data with various formulas using the system of worksheet or spreadsheet, which is composed of columns and rows. Microsoft office excel comes bundled with different kinds of software programs of Microsoft Office which it is also compatible with other software applications offered by various product grouping. Additionally, Multiplan is the first software program, which is similar to the Microsoft Excel. Thus, this was released in 1982.

Microsoft Excel is easy to learn and understand, just try to focus and study carefully the functions and formulas of the said software program. First, the user must have to learn the basics on how to use the Microsoft Excel and other software program like Microsoft and Calc. In addition, the user must know how to create a professional and effective looking worksheet or spreadsheet. In Microsoft Excel, there are nine parts, which is viewed on screen when you open the worksheet or a spreadsheet. These are the quick Access Excel toolbar, file tab, ribbon, and formula bar, name box, column letters, active cells, row numbers and sheet tabs.

The active cell is recognized as the black outline where data is plainly entered inside the active cell. File tab is the replacement of the office button in Microsoft Excel 2007. Formula bar is found above the spreadsheet. Name box is just located beside the formula bar and it displays the cell reference of one active cell. Column letters is where the columns vertically run on the spreadsheet also identified by a single letter located in its column header.

Row numbers is the horizontally run rows within the worksheet and are being identified by a single number located in its row header. Both column and row number created cell reference. Sheet tabs are having three worksheets by default in one Excel File. Quick access toolbar allows the user in adding frequently the different used commands. Ribbon is considered the strips of icon and button, which is located at the work area. This is being organized in three tab series, which is known as the home, formulas and files.

The second step that you have to learn is the basic of various formulas and functions of the Microsoft Excel. One of them is the DELTA excel function. This Microsoft Excel function describes the syntax formula and its usage. It describes the tests whether both of the two values are significantly equal. DELTA excel function returns the one if the number1 is equal to number2; thus it has to return zero if it is necessary. The user must have to use the DELTA excel function in filtering a set of significant values. DELTa is known as the “Kronecker Delta Function”. The syntax for DELTA function in Microsoft Excel is “DELTA (number1,number2)”. It has the following arguments. Number1 is the first number, which is required. Number2 is second number, which is optional so if it is omitted, number2 is considered to be zero.

# GESTEP Excel Formula

Microsoft Excel is the kind of spreadsheet program for Macintosh and Windows computers. It is a part of Microsoft Office grouping. This includes PowerPoint for Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word, and other different productivity programs. It is a software program, which integrates in creating powerful tool to present financial information. Thus, it is also part of the Microsoft Excel to make existing information and gather it the easier allowing for the advanced functions of the spreadsheet. The main or major part of the Microsoft Excel is called the spreadsheet or worksheet wherein you can view the entire activity of the data formulation of Microsoft Excel. It is usually consist of three worksheets or spreadsheet by default.

By controlling the view of your worksheet, you have to switch between the open workbook in cascading manner or filing the open windows. You can freeze column row onscreen headings for the data’s simplified entry. Moreover, the user can hide a row or column of the confidential information. Thus, you can also do the freezing of rows and columns using the formula in Excel. The unhidden and hiding of the rows and columns can simply be specified.

The other one is the data and formula analysis, which allows easy and quick calculations. Charts are also part of Excel wherein it is responsible for the data calculated and entered that is used in creating charts such as line, pie charts, bar charts, column and many others. Formatting in Excel, on the other hand, is responsible in allowing the cell formatting for number formats, print formatting and conditional formatting, which is based on the calculation results. Cells are easy to highlight using various fonts and colors.

Microsoft Excel has various Formulas and functions, which are often used in financial, engineering, mathematical and arithmetic analysis. These functions are very important along with the formulas to formulate, calculate, analyze and many various things that you can do with these things in Microsoft Excel. Formulas and functions can be used in several Excel problems encountered with the users to create their data. One of the functions that are being used in Excel is the GESTEP function. This is a kind of function which is often used in engineering.

GESTEP function n Microsoft Excel returns one, if number is equal or more than the step value and eventually come back to zero. The syntax for GESTEP function is equal to GESTEP(number,[step]). Step is considered as the threshold quantity in its syntax. Number is considered as the value to check against its step value.

**Remarks:**

The GESTEP function is removed from the Excel’s add-in Analysis ToolPak and it is now available as standard in Excel 2007. In Excel 2003, this function is only available when you download the Excel add-in Analysis Toolpak. If any of the argument is not numeric then GESTEP functions in Excel returns the error value of the formula #VALUE! GESTEP function in Microsoft Excel calculates the values count, which exceed to the threshold. This function is utilized to sort out or filter values.

# IMCONJUGATE Excel Formula

**Historical Background of the Microsoft Excel**

Microsoft Excel is the spreadsheet application, which is written as well as distributed by Microsoft Company for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. This software program features graphing tools, macro programming, and calculation as well as pivot tables. In the language of macro programming, it is called Applications of Visual Basics. It is the most widely used software program for applying spreadsheet platforms introduced since the 1993 version 5. Then, it placed entirely by Lotus 123 as the spreadsheet of the standard industry. Excel has been part of the Microsoft office. There are two current versions of Microsoft Excel – Mac OS X 2011 and for Microsoft Windows 2010.

Microsoft Excel has its basic and essential features of the entire spreadsheet that uses the cell grids arranged in columns for letter-named and numbered rows organizing manipulations for data such as arithmetic operations. It has billions of supplied functions answering all the queries for engineering, statistical and financial matters. Besides, Excel can display and feature data as charts, histograms, line graphs and a limited graphical and three-dimensional display.

Excel allows the data sectioning viewing its dependencies in different factor from its various points of view. These different perspectives uses scenario manager and pivot table. It has also VBA that allows the user to utilize numerical methods with its wide varieties then it also aims to report back the result to the Excel spreadsheet. For more wide elaboration, Microsoft Excel Application can poll automatically the external databases. It is also the instrument for using and measuring the schedule updating, making of slide show for PowerPoint and Word report thus analyzing the results. Microsoft Excel allows an optional number for switches to command line controlling the manner when Excel begins to run.

In Microsoft Excel, there are various functions and formulas that are being utilized in every data sorting, calculation and many other usages. Functions have the capacity to do different purposes in the spreadsheet. One of the functions which are often used is the IMCONJUGATE. In Microsoft Excel, complex conjugate or the IMCONJUGATE function will determine two provided conditions that are met. First, the numbers are placed in its rectangular form. Second, proper function is being used.

**In directly entering the number, the user must have to take the different steps.**

- Hit the drop down function arrow button.
- Choose the button “more functions”
- Among various functions, choose “IMCONJUGATE”

This is to remind the user that the certain value is directly entered. Arguments or the complex numbers are entered using the certain values from the referenced cell. IMCONJUGATE displayed in rectangular form. IMCONJUGATE function in Microsoft Excel returns the complex conjugate of the given certain complex number “a+ib within text format. The IMCONJUGATE function syntax is “=IMCONJUGATE(inumber). iNumber is considered the complex number, which the user likes to search for the complex conjugate.

**Reminder:**

The user can use the complex or IMCONJUGATE function in converting imaginary and real coefficients within the complex number. If the function argument are not within the a+jb or a+ib format and then the function takes back the error value of the #NUM!. Thus, the user can also use the cell reference as the argument within the excel function.

# IMSIN Excel Formula

What is IMSIN function in excel? The Excel IMSIN functions return the cosine of the supplied compound number. The arrangement of this function is:

**Format function:**

= IMSIN (inumber)

It is where the number of arguments is complex number.

**Note:**

You have to remember that the complex numbers are just stored as the text with excel. When the text strings in format ‘a plus bi’ or ‘a plus bj’ is supplied to the Excel’s en suite complex number functions, it is interpreted as the complex number.

Additionally, the complex number function could be accepted as a easy numeric value, with this it is equivalent to the complex numbers whose imaginary co-efficient is equal to zero.

As a result, the number of argument could be supplied in Excel IMSIN functions as is:

A simple numbers or,

Complex number encase in the quotation marks,

**For example:**

5 + 3i

Or,

Reference to the cell containing the complex number or the numeric value or else,

Value returned from the other Excel function or a formula

**Common Errors for IMSIN Function**

- #Value! – It often happen when the supplied I number argument is not identified or recognized as the imaginary or as real number

- #Name! – It happens when the analysis tool pak add on isn’t enabled in the Excel. You will have to allow the add on if you like to use Excel engineering function

For you to do it in Excel version 2003 here are the following guidelines:

- Go to the Tools Men
- Then from the Tools, you have to drop down the menu
- After that, choose for the options Add- On
- An Add- on window will then pop out.
- From there, you have to hit Analysis Tool Pak
- And then, hit OK

**For you to do in Excel version 2010 here are the following guidelines: **

- First, you have to go to the button and click over the Microsoft icon that is just on top of the left of the spreadsheet
- And the, choose the Excel option button
- After this, From the menu that you can find on the left side, you have to hit Go
- And then, the Add On’s window will then pop out
- From here, you will choose options Analysis Tool Pak
- Finally, click OK

**Over-all Remarks:**

For you to use the more complex functions of the IMSIN, you need to convert the real and imaginary co-efficient in the complex number

Sine for the complex number would be:

Sin (x + yi) = sin (x) cosh (y) – cos (x) sinh (y) I

**For example:**

The example can be easier to learn and understand when you copy them to blank worksheet.

How to Copy Example:

- Make a blank workbook or blank worksheet
- Choose the example in Help topic
- When you already choose the example from Help menu, press control PLUS C
- In the workbook, choose cell A1 and then press CTRL + V.
- To switch the viewing of the result and formulas which return in the result, press CTRL + ‘the grave accent or in the Formulas tab, on the Formula Auditing groups, then click Show Formulas button

**Formula:**

= IMSIN (‘’ 3 + 4i ‘’)

**Description Result:**

Sine of this variable: 3 + 4i (3.853738 – 27.016813i)

# IMSUM Excel Formula

**Description:**

IMSUM Excel function computes the sum or total of several complex numbers.

The format for the said function is:

**Syntax:**

= IMSUM (Inumber1, Inumber2 …)

Where,

Inumber1, Inumber2 … arguments are consists of complex numbers between 1 and 255.

**Note:**

You have to keep in mind that complex numbers are basically stored as context or text in Excel application. When a sequence in the format “a + bj” or “a + bi” is given to one of Excel built-in functions of complex numbers, this is read as complex number. In addition, this complex number function is accepted as a single numeric value, since this is equal to a complex number containing imaginary coefficient which is equal to 0.

**So, arguments can be used to Inumber IMSUM Excel function either as:**

- A simple number, and/or a complex number inside the quotation marks – e.g. “5 + i3″, or
- A value that is returned from an additional Excel formula or function
- A reference to a data cell containing a numeric value or complex number.

Excel IMSUM functions are utilized to find the total or sum of several complex numbers. Its functions are displayed in the spreadsheet on its left side and the results are given in the spreadsheet to the right.

**In Utilizing the IMSUM Function:**

- You have to key in the “=IMSUM(“
- Enter its coordinate on its A2 data cell
- Put a comma after it
- Enter its coordinate for B2 data cell
- Then key in “)” and after that press ENTER key.

For more information about the IMSUM function in Excel, you can visit Microsoft Office site.

**Common Errors in Excel IMSUM Function:**

If you get the error from the IMSUB function in excel, it would be possible be one of these:

- #NUM! – It happen when the supplied NUMBER argument is not identified as the complex number

- #NAME? – It happen when the Analysis Tool Pak adds on is not enabled in the Excel. You will have to let the add-on if you like to use Excel engineering functions.

For you to perform this in Excel 2003, you have to do the following:

- From its drop down Tools menu, you have to choose the option Analysis Tool Pak and then click OK.

- An add-on window will pop out and from here, you need to choose the option Analysis Tool Pal and then click OK

For you to perform this in Excel 2007, you have to do the following:

- Click Microsoft button just on top of the left spreadsheet and then choose Excel Options button

- From Menu, select Add on located at the left hand side

- In Manage box, you have to choose Excel Add- Ins and then click GO

- An Add-on window will pop out. From here, you have to choose option Analysis Tool Pak and then click OK

These are the things that you can do to make IMSUM function in Excel. There are still a lot of tutorials that you can find online and through Microsoft site. You can browse online and learn more about IMSUM function. Furthermore, you can also look for some more formulas to use.

# Oct2Dec Excel Formula

Hexadecimals base 16, decimals base 10, octal base 8, and the binary base 2 are just the most commonly use numeral systems in computing and engineering. Thus, Excel also has provided to convert the numeric values to and from each of the systems. Excel Oct2Dec functions convert the octal base 8 number in the decimal number. And format is as follow:

**Format:**

= Oct2Dec (number)

Where the number arguments are the octal number which is to be converted in the decimal

**Note**:

You have to remember that the supplied NUMBER arguments should not be over or more than ten characters or 40 bits long. The most essential bit of the value denotes the signs of the number as well as the remaining 39 bits denote the magnitude. The negative numbers are being represented with the use of two complement notation.

**Oct2Dec Function Examples:**

Here are the following spreadsheets that show samples of Excel Oct2Dec function. The forma of this function is being shown in the sheet on the left and results are shown in the right spreadsheet.

**Formulas:**

=OCT2DEC (“10”) Results is: 1*8 + 0

=OCT2DEC (“22”) Results is: 2*8 + 2

=OCT2DEC (“0000000010”) Results is: 1*8 + 0

=OCT2DEC (“7777777770”) Results is: -8^9 + 7*8^8 + 7*8^7 + … + 7*8 + 0

=OCT2DEC (“355”) Results is: 3*8^2 + 5*8 + 5

Keep in mind that in the above mentioned example of spreadsheet, the negative octal in the first example is represented by the two complement notation. You can find further information about these, in the Microsoft websites.

**Common Errors:**

If you are to get an error from the Excel Oct2Dec function, it is likely to be one of the following:

- #NUM! – It takes place when the supplied NUMBER argument is not identified as the octal number, or it contains more than ten characters

- #NAME? – It happens when the Analysis Tool Pak adds on is not facilitated in Excel. You have to allow the add-on if you like to make use of Excel engineering functions.

**For you to do this in Excel 2003, you have to do the following:**

- From the Tools drop down menu, you have to choose the option Analysis Tool Pak and then click OK.

- An add-on window will pop out and from here, you need to choose the option Analysis Tool Pal and then click OK

**For you to do this in Excel 2007, you have to do the following:**

- Click Microsoft button just on top of the left spreadsheet and then choose Excel Options button

- From Menu, select Add on located at the left hand side

- An Add-on window will pop out. From here, you have to choose option Analysis Tool Pak and then click OK

These are the important things that you can achieve to create Oct2Dec function in Excel. There are several tutorials that you can come across online through the various Microsoft site. You can browse online and find out more about Oct2Dec functions. Besides, you can also look for additional formulas to make use of.

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